Sources

The sources we use are selected for their reliability. We mostly use peer-reviewed papers; however, we occasionally refer to government-commissioned studies, authoritative bodies’ submissions to governmental commissions, published books, or doctoral theses. In a few cases, we provide references for the purpose of debunking unreliable data.

Inclusion of a particular reference in this ‘Sources’ section should not, for this reason, be interpreted as recommendation.

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A

Acosta, F. J., Rodríguez, C. J., Cejas, M. R., Ramallo-Fariña, Y. & Fernandez-Garcimartin, H. (2020) Suicide Coverage in the Digital Press Media: Adherence to World Health Organization Guidelines and Effectiveness of Different Interventions Aimed at Media Professionals. Health Communication 35 (13). [Link]

Aitken, M., Steensma, T.D., Blanchard, R., VanderLaan, D.P., Wood, H., Fuentes, A., Spegg, C., Wasserman, L., Ames, M., Fitzsimmons, C.L., Leef, J.H., Lishak, V., Reim, E., Takagi, A., Vinik, J., Wreford, J., Cohen-Kettenis, P.T., de Vries, A.L., Kreukels, B.P. & Zucker, K.J. (2015). Evidence for an altered sex ratio in clinic-referred adolescents with gender dysphoria. J Sex Med 12 (3): 756-63. [Link]

Aitken, M., Vanderlaan, D., Wasserman, L., Stojanovski, S. & Zucker, K. (2016). Self-Harm and Suicidality in Children Referred for Gender Dysphoria. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 55. [Link]

Allison, S., Warin, M. & Bastiampillai, T. (2013). Anorexia nervosa and social contagion: Clinical implications. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 48 (2): 116-120. [Link]

Alzahrani, T. Nguyen, T., Ryan, A., Dwairy, A. McCaffrey, J., Yunus, R., Forgione, J., Krepp, J., Nagy, C., Mazhari, R. & Reiner, J. (2019). Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Myocardial Infarction in the Transgender Population. Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 12 (4). [Link]

American Journal of Psychiatry (2020). Correction to Bränström and Pachankis. Published online: 1 August 2020. [Link]

Asscheman, H., Giltay, E. J., Megens, J. A. J., de Ronde, W., van Trotsenburg, M. A. A. & Gooren, L. J. G. (2011). A long-term follow-up study of mortality in transsexuals receiving treatment with cross-sex hormones. European Journal of Endocrinology 164 (4). [Link]

B

Baker, K.E., Wilson, L.M., Sharma, R., Dukhanin, V., McArthur, K. & Robinson, K.A. (2021) Hormone Therapy, Mental Health, and Quality of Life Among Transgender People: A Systematic Review. Journal of the Endocrine Society 5 (4). [Link]

Baldassarre, M., Giannone, F., Foschini, M., Battaglia, C., Busacchi, P., Venturoli, S., & Meriggiola, M. (2013). Effects of long-term high dose testosterone administration on vaginal epithelium structure and estrogen receptor-α and -β expression of young women. International Journal Of Impotence Research, 25 (5): 172-177. [Link]

Barrett, J. (2015). Written evidence submitted by British Association of Gender Identity Specialists to the Transgender Equality Inquiry. data.parliament.uk [Link]

Becerra-Culqui, T.A. Liu, Y., Nash, R., Cromwell, L., Flanders, W.D., Getahun, D. Giammattei, S.V., Hunkeler, E.M., Lash, T.L., Millman, A., Quinn, V.P., Robinson, B., Roblin, D., Sandberg, D.E., Silverberg, M.J., Tangpricha, V. & Goodman, M. (2018). ‘Mental health of transgender and gender nonconforming youth compared with their peers. Pediatrics 141(5). [Link]

Bechard, M., VanderLaan, D. P., Wood, H., Wasserman, L. & Zucker, K. (2017). Psychosocial and Psychological Vulnerability in Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria: A “Proof of Principle” Study. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 43 (7). [Link]

Bettocchi, C., Ralph, D.J. & Pryor, J.P. (2005). Pedicled pubic phalloplasty in females with gender dysphoria. BJU Int. 95:120–4. [Link]

Bhargava, A., Arnold, A.P., Bangasser, D.A., Denton, K.M., Gupta, A., Hilliard Krause, L.M., Mayer, E.A., McCarthy, M., Miller, W.L., Raznahan, A. & Verma, R. (2021). Considering Sex as a Biological Variable in Basic and Clinical Studies: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement. Endocrine Reviews 42 (3): 219-258. [Link]

Biggs, M. (2019). The Tavistock’s Experiment with Puberty Blockers. In: Moore, M. & Brunskell-Evans, H. (eds.). Inventing Transgender Children and Young People. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. [Link]

Biggs, M. (2020). Puberty Blockers and Suicidality in Adolescents Suffering from Gender Dysphoria. Archives of Sexual Behavior (49): 2227–2229. [Link]

Biggs, M. (2021). Revisiting the effect of GnRH analogue treatment on bone mineral density in young adolescents with gender dysphoria. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism 34 (7): 937-939. [Link]

Bishoy, H., Repack, D., Tarang, P., Guirguis, E., Kumar, G. & Sachdeva, R. (2019). Psychiatric disorders in the U.S. transgender population. Annals of Epidemiology 39: 1-7. [Link]

Bjorkman, B.M. (2017). Singular they and the syntactic representation of gender in English. Glossa: a journal of general linguistics 2 (1): 1-13. [Link]

Bränström, R. & Pachankis, J. E. (2019). Reduction in Mental Health Treatment Utilization Among Transgender Individuals After Gender-Affirming Surgeries: A Total Population Study. American Journal of Psychiatry 177 (8): 727-734. [Link]

Burgess, L.G., Riddell, P.M., Fancourt, A. & Murayama, K. (2018). The Influence of Social Contagion Within Education: A Motivational Perspective. Mind, Brain, and Education 12: 164-174. [Link]

Butler, G., De Graaf, N., Wren, B. & Carmichael, P. (2018) Assessment and support of children and adolescents with gender dysphoria. Archives of Disease in Childhood103: 631-636. [Link]

C

Carmichael, P., Butler, G., Masic, U., Cole, T. J., De Stavola, B. L., Davidson, S., Skageberg, E. M., Khadr, S., & Viner, R. M. (2021). Short-term outcomes of pubertal suppression in a selected cohort of 12 to 15 year old young people with persistent gender dysphoria in the UK. PLOS ONE 16 (2). [Link]

Cheng, P.J., Pastuszak, A.W., Myers, J.B., Goodwin, I.A. & Hotaling, J.M. (2019). Fertility concerns of the transgender patient. Transl Androl Urol. 8 (3): 209-218. [Link]

Churcher Clarke, A. & Spiliadis, A. (2019). ‘Taking the lid off the box’: The value of extended clinical assessment for adolescents presenting with gender identity difficulties. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry 24 (2): 338-352. [Link]

Coelho, J., Suen, J., Clark, B., Marshall, S., Geller, J. & Lam, P.-Y. (2019). Eating Disorder Diagnoses and Symptom Presentation in Transgender Youth: a Scoping Review. Current Psychiatry Reports 21. [Link]

Cohen-Kettenis, P., Schagen, S., Steensma, T., de Vries, A., & Delemarre-van de Waal, H. (2011). Puberty Suppression in a Gender-Dysphoric Adolescent: A 22-Year Follow-Up. Archives Of Sexual Behavior 40 (4): 843-847. [Link]

Cumming, R., Sylvester, K. & Fuld, J.P. (2016). Understanding the effects on lung function of chest binder use in the transgender population. Thorax 71. [Link]

D

D’Angelo, R. (2018). Psychiatry’s ethical involvement in gender-affirming care. Australasian Psychiatry 26 (5): 460-463. [Link]

D’Angelo, R., Syrulnik, E., Ayad, S., Marchiano, L., Kenny, D.T. & Clarke, P. (2021). One Size Does Not Fit All: In Support of Psychotherapy for Gender Dysphoria. Arch Sex Behav 50: 7-16. [Link]

Daum, Meghan (2021). “We Feel Like We’re In The Wild West:” Parents of Gender-Questioning Kids Ask Their Own Questions. The Unspeakable Podcast, October 4, 2021. [Link]

Debarbo, C.J.M. (2020). Rare cause of testicular torsion in a transwoman: A case report. Urology Case Reports 33. [Link]

de Blok, C.J.M., Wiepjes, C.M., van Velzen, D.M., Staphorsius, A.S., Nota, N.M., Gooren, L.J.G., Kreukels, B.P.C. & den Heijer, M. (2021). Mortality trends over five decades in adult transgender people receiving hormone treatment: a report from the Amsterdam cohort of gender dysphoria. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology 9. [Link]

de Freitas, L. D., Léda-Rêgo, G., Bezerra-Filho, S., & Miranda-Scippa, Â. (2020). Psychiatric disorders in individuals diagnosed with gender dysphoria: A systematic review. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 74 (2), 99–104. [Link]

Delahunt, J.W., Denison, H.J., Sim, D.A., Bullock, J.J. & Krebs, J.D. (2018). Increasing rates of people identifying as transgender presenting to Endocrine Services in the Wellington region. N Z Med J 131: 33-42. [Link]

Delgado-Ruiz, R., Swanson, P., & Romanos, G. (2019). Systematic Review of the Long-Term Effects of Transgender Hormone Therapy on Bone Markers and Bone Mineral Density and Their Potential Effects in Implant Therapy. Journal of clinical medicine 8 (6): 784. [Link]

de Vries, A. L. C., & Cohen-Kettenis, P. T. (2012). Clinical management of gender dysphoria in children and adolescents: The Dutch approach. Journal of Homosexuality 59 (3): 301–320. [Link]

de Vries, A. L. C., McGuire, T., Steensma, E., Wagenaar, T., Doreleijers, P. & Cohen-Kettenis, P. (2014). Young adult psychological outcome after puberty suppression and gender reassignment. [Link]

de Vries, A.L.C., Steensma, T.D., Doreleijers, T.A. & Cohen-Kettenis, P.T. (2011). Puberty suppression in adolescents with gender identity disorder: a prospective follow-up study. J Sex Med 8 (8): 2276-83. [Link]

de Vries, K. M. (2009). Berdache (Two-Spirit). In O’Brien, J. (ed.): Encyclopedia of gender and society. Los Angeles: SAGE. [Link]

Dhejne, C., Lichtenstein, P., Boman, M., Johansson, A. L. V., Långström, N., & Landén, M. (2011). Long-term follow-up of transsexual persons undergoing sex reassignment surgery: Cohort study in Sweden. PLoS ONE, 6(2). [Link]

Dishion, T. J., & Tipsord, J. M. (2011). Peer contagion in child and adolescent social and emotional development. Annual review of psychology 62: 189–214. [Link]

Dreher, P.C., Edwards, D., Hager, S., Dennis, M., Belkoff, A., Mora, J., Tarry, S. & Rumer, K.L. (2018). Complications of the neovagina in male-to-female transgender surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis with discussion of management. Clin Anat. 31 (2):191-199. [Link]

E

Elaut, E. (2014). Biopsychosocial factors in the sexual desire of contraception‐using couples and trans persons. Doctoral thesis, University of Ghent. [Link]

Elhakeem, A., Frysz, M., Tilling, K., Tobias, J.H. & Lawlor, D.A. (2019). Association Between Age at Puberty and Bone Accrual From 10 to 25 Years of Age. JAMA Netw Open; 2(8). [Link]

Expósito-Campos, P. (2021). A Typology of Gender Detransition and Its Implications for Healthcare Providers. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 47 (3): 270-280. [Link]

F

Fang, R.H., Lin, J.T. & Ma S. (1994). Phalloplasty for female transsexuals with sensate free forearm flap. Microsurgery 15: 349–52. [Link]

Fausto-Sterling, A. (2000). Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality. New York: Basic Books. [Link]

Flores, A.R., Herman, J. L.; Gates, G. J. & Brown, T.N.T. (2016). How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender? Los Angeles, CA: The Williams Institute. [Link]

G

Gender Identity Development Service (2021). Referrals to GIDS, financial years 2010-11 to 2020-21. [Link]

Gender Identity Development Service (2021). Evidence base. [Link]

Grant, J. M., Mottet, L. A., Tanis, J., Harrison, J., Herman, J. L., & Keisling, M. (2011). Injustice at every turn: A report of the national transgender discrimination survey. National Gay and Lesbian Task Force; National Center for Transgender Equality. [Link]

Grubber, B. (2017). Singular They: The Best Epicene Pronoun. Student Research Conference Select Presentations: Paper 45. [Link]

H

Hall, R., Mitchell, L., & Sachdeva, J. (2021). Access to care and frequency of detransition among a cohort discharged by a UK national adult gender identity clinic: Retrospective case-note review. BJPsych Open 7(6): E184. [Link]

Haupt, C., Henke, M., Kutschmar, A., Hauser, B., Baldinger, S., Saenz, S.R. & Schreiber, G. (2020). Antiandrogen or estradiol treatment or both during hormone therapy in transitioning transgender women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 11. [Link]

Hermansson-Webb, E. B. (2014). ‘With Friends Like These…’: The Social Contagion of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Amongst Adolescent Females. Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy: University of Otago. [Link]

K

Kaltiala-Heino, R., Bergman, H., Työläjärvi, M., & Frisén, L. (2018). Gender dysphoria in adolescence: current perspectives. Adolescent health, medicine and therapeutics 9, 31–41. [Link]

Kaltiala-Heino, R., Sumia, M., Työläjärvi, M. & Lindberg, N. (2015). Two years of gender identity service for minors: overrepresentation of natal girls with severe problems in adolescent development. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 9 (1). [Link]

Konnelly, L. & Cowper, E. (2020). Gender diversity and morphosyntax: An account of singular they. Glossa: a journal of general linguistics 5 (1): 1–19. [Link]

Kozlowska, K., McClure, G., Chudleigh, C., Maguire, A.M., Gessler, D., Scher, S. & Ambler, G.R. (2021). ‘Australian children and adolescents with gender dysphoria: Clinical presentations and challenges experienced by a multidisciplinary team and gender service’. Human Systems, 1(1), 70–95. [Link]

Kuhn, A., Santi, A. & Birkhäuser, M. (2011). Vaginal prolapse, pelvic floor function, and related symptoms 16 years after sex reassignment surgery in transsexuals. Fertil Steril. 95: 2379-82. [Link]

L

Lee, J. Y., Finlayson, C., Olson-Kennedy, J., Garofalo, R., Chan, Y. M., Glidden, D. V., & Rosenthal, S. M. (2020). Low Bone Mineral Density in Early Pubertal Transgender/Gender Diverse Youth: Findings From the Trans Youth Care Study. Journal of the Endocrine Society 4 (9). [Link]

Leef, J.H., Brian, J., VanderLaan, D.P., Wood, H., Scott, K., Lai, M-C., Bradley, S.J., & Zucker, K.J. (2019). Traits of autism spectrum disorder in school-aged children with gender dysphoria: A comparison to clinical controls. Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology 7 (4): 383–395. [Link]

Levine, S. (2018). Informed Consent for Transgendered Patients. Journal Of Sex & Marital Therapy, 45(3), 218-229. [Link]

Levy, D. A., & Nail, P. R. (1993). Contagion: A theoretical and empirical review and reconceptualization. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs 119 (2): 233-284. [Link]

Lipson, S. K., Raifman, J., Abelson, S. & Reisner, S. L. (2019). Gender Minority Mental Health in the U.S.: Results of a National Survey on College Campuses. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 57 (3): 293-301. [Link]

Littman, L. (2018). Rapid-onset gender dysphoria in adolescents and young adults: A study of parental reports. PLOS ONE, 13 (8). [Link]

Littman, L. (2021). Individuals Treated for Gender Dysphoria with Medical and/or Surgical Transition Who Subsequently Detransitioned: A Survey of 100 Detransitioners. Arch Sex Behav. [Link]

M

Madsen, M.C., van Dijk, D. Wiepjes, C.M., Conemans, E.B., Thijs, A. & den Heijer, M. (2021). Erythrocytosis in a Large Cohort of Trans Men Using Testosterone: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study on Prevalence, Determinants, and Exposure Years. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 106 (6): 1710–1717. [Link]

Manrique, O., Adabi, K., Martinez-Jorge, J., Ciudad, P., Nicoli, F. and Kiranantawat, K. (2018). Complications and Patient-Reported Outcomes in Male-to-Female Vaginoplasty—Where We Are Today. Annals of Plastic Surgery 80 (6): 684-691. [Link]

Marchiano, L. (2017). Outbreak: On Transgender Teens and Psychic Epidemics. Psychological Perspectives 60 (3): 345-366. [Link]

Mazaheri Meybodi, A., Hajebi, A., & Ghanbari Jolfaei, A. (2014). Psychiatric Axis I: Comorbidities among Patients with Gender Dysphoria. Psychiatry journal 2014. [Link]

Moisés da Silva, G.V., Lobato, M.I.R., Silva, D.C., Schwarz, K., Fontanari, A.M.V., Costa, A.B., Tavares, P.M., Gorgen, A.R.H., Cabral, R.D. & Rosito, T.E. (2021). Male-to-Female Gender-Affirming Surgery: 20-Year Review of Technique and Surgical Results. Frontiers in Surgery 8. [Link]

N

Nassiri, N., Maas, M., Basin, M., Cacciamani, G.E. & Doumanian, L.R. (2020). Urethral complications after gender reassignment surgery: a systematic review. Int J Impot Res. [Link]

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2021). Evidence review: Gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogues for children and adolescents with gender dysphoria. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE); NHS England; NHS Improvement. [Link]

Nodin, N., Peel, E., Tyler, A. & Rivers, I. (2015). The RaRE Research Report: LGB&T Mental Health – Risk and Resilience Explored. Project for Advocacy Counselling and Education. [Link]

Nordentoft, M., Madsen, T. & Fedyszyn, I. (2015). Suicidal behavior and mortality in first-episode psychosis. J Nerv Ment Dis. 203 (5): 387-92. [Link]

Nota, N.M., Wiepjes, C.M., de Blok, C.J.M., Gooren, L.J.G., Kreukels, B.P.D. & den Heijer, M. (2019). Occurrence of Acute Cardiovascular Events in Transgender Individuals Receiving Hormone Therapy: Results From a Large Cohort Study. Circulation 139: 1461-1462. [Link]

P

Pang, K.C., Notini, L., McDougall, R., Gillam, L., Savulescu, J., Wilkinson, D., Clark, B.A., Olson-Kennedy, J., Telfer, M.M. & Lantos, J.D. (2020). Long-term Puberty Suppression for a Nonbinary Teenager. Pediatrics 145 (2). [Link]

Peitzmeier, S., Gardner, I., Weinand, J., Corbet A. & Acevedo, K. (2017). Health impact of chest binding among transgender adults: a community-engaged, cross-sectional study. Culture, Health & Sexuality 19 (1): 64-75. [Link]

Peitzmeier, S.M., Silberholz, J., Gardner, I.H., Weinand, J. & Acevedo, K. (2021). Time to First Onset of Chest Binding-Related Symptoms in Transgender Youth. Pediatrics 147 (3). [Link]

Poteat, T., Malik, M., & Cooney, E. (2018). Understanding the health effects of binding and tucking for gender affirmation. Journal of Clinical and Translational Science 2 (Suppl 1), 76. [Link]

Poteat, T., Scheim, A., Xavier, J., Reisner, S. & Baral, S. (2016). Global Epidemiology of HIV Infection and Related Syndemics Affecting Transgender People. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 72 (Suppl 3). [Link]

R

Rashid, M. & Tamimy, M. S. (2013). Phalloplasty: The dream and the reality. Indian J Plast Surg 46 (2): 283-293. [Link]

Rauchfleisch, U., Barth, D. & Battegay, R. (1998). Resultate einer Langzeitkatamnese von Transsexuellen. Der Nervenzart 69: 799-805. [Link]

Reisner, S.L., Vetters, R., Leclerc, M., Zaslow, S., Wolfrum, S., Shumer, D. & Mimiaga, M.J. (2015). Mental Health of Transgender Youth in Care at an Adolescent Urban Community Health Center: A Matched Retrospective Cohort Study. Journal of Adolescent Health 56 (3): 274-279. [Link]

Robinson, I.S., Blasdel, G., Cohen, O., Zhao, L.C. & Bluebond-Langner, R. (2021). Surgical Outcomes Following Gender Affirming Penile Reconstruction: Patient-Reported Outcomes From a Multi-Center, International Survey of 129 Transmasculine Patients. J Sex Med 18 (4): 800-811. [Link]

S

Safer, D., Bullock, K. & Safer, J. (2016). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Presenting as Gender Dysphoria/Gender Incongruence: A Case Report and Literature Review. AACE Clinical Case Reports 2. [Link]

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Shah, K. McCormack, C. & Bradbury, N. (2014). Do you know the sex of your cells?’ American Journal of Physiology – Cell Physiology, C3-C18, 306, 1. [Link]

Sharp, V. J., Kieran, K. & Arlen, A. M. (2013). Testicular Torsion: Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Management. Am Fam Physician 88 (12): 835-840. [Link]

Singh, D. (2012). A follow-up study of boys with gender identity disorder. Doctoral thesis, University of Toronto. [Link]

Singh, D., Bradley, S.J. & Zucker, K.J. (2021). A Follow-Up Study of Boys With Gender Identity Disorder. Frontiers in Psychology 12. [Link]

Steensma, T.D. & Cohen-Kettenis, P.T. (2011). Gender Transitioning before Puberty? Archives of Sexual Behavior 40 (4): 649-50. [Link]

Steensma, T.D. & Cohen-Kettenis, P.T. (2018). A critical commentary on “A critical commentary on follow-up studies and “desistence” theories about transgender and gender non-conforming children”. International Journal of Transgenderism. [Link]

Steensma, T.D., McGuire, J.K., Kreukels, B.P., Beekman, A.J. & Cohen-Kettenis, P.T. (2013). Factors associated with desistence and persistence of childhood gender dysphoria: a quantitative follow-up study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 52 (6): 582-90. [Link]

Steensma, T.D., van der Ende, J., Verhulst, F.C. & Cohen‐Kettenis, P.T. (2013). Gender Variance in Childhood and Sexual Orientation in Adulthood: A Prospective Study. J Sex Med 10 (11): 2723-2733. [Link]

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Strang, J.F., Kenworthy, L., Dominska, A., Sokoloff, J., Kenealy, L.E., Berl, M., Walsh, K., Menvielle, E., Slesaransky-Poe, G., Kim, K.E., Luong-Tran, C., Meagher, H. & Wallace, G.L. (2014) Increased gender variance in autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Arch Sex Behav 43 (8): 1525-33. [Link]

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T

Tanis, J. (2016). The power of 41%: A glimpse into the life of a statistic. Am J Orthopsychiatry, 86 (4): 373-7. [Link]

Temple Newhook, J., Pyne, J., Winters, K., Feder, S., Holmes, C., Tosh, J., Sinnott, M., Jamieson, A., & Picket, S. (2018). A critical commentary on follow-up studies and “desistance” theories about transgender and gender non-conforming children. International Journal of Transgenderism 19 (2). [Link]

Trussler, J. T., & Carrasquillo, R. J. (2020). Cryptozoospermia Associated With Genital Tucking Behavior in a Transwoman. Reviews in urology, 22 (4), 170–173. [Link]

Turban, J.L., Beckwith, N., Reisner, S.L., & Keuroghlian, A.S. (2020). Association between recalled exposure to gender identity conversion efforts and psychological distress and suicide attempts among transgender adults. JAMA Psychiatry 77 (1): 68-76. [Link]

Turban, J.L., Loo, S.S., Almazan, A.N., & Keuroghlian, A.S. (2021). Factors Leading to “Detransition” Among Transgender and Gender Diverse People in the United States: A Mixed-Methods Analysis. LGBT health 8(4): 273-280. [Link]

V

van de Grift, T., Pigot, G., Kreukels, B., Bouman, M., & Mullender, M. (2019). Transmen’s Experienced Sexuality and Genital Gender-Affirming Surgery: Findings From a Clinical Follow-Up Study. Journal Of Sex & Marital Therapy 45 (3): 201-205. [Link]

Vandenbussche, E. (2021). Detransition-Related Needs and Support: A Cross-Sectional Online Survey. Journal of Homosexuality. [Link]

VanderLaan, D.P., Postema, L., Wood, H., Singh, D., Fantus, S., Hyun, J., Leef, J., Bradley, S.J. & Zucker, K.J.. (2015). Do children with gender dysphoria have intense/obsessional interests? J Sex Res. 52 (2): 213-9. [Link]

Van Der Miesen, A.I.R., Hurley, H. & De Vries, A.L.C. (2016) Gender dysphoria and autism spectrum disorder: A narrative review, International Review of Psychiatry 28:1: 70-80. [Link]

Vlot, M.C., Wiepjes, C.M., de Jongh, R.T., T’Sjoen, G., Heijboer, A.C. & den Heijer, M. (2019). Gender-Affirming Hormone Treatment Decreases Bone Turnover in Transwomen and Older Transmen. J Bone Miner Res, 34: 1862-1872. [Link]

W

Wallien, M.S. & Cohen-Kettenis P.T. (2008) Psychosexual outcome of gender-dysphoric children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 47 (12): 1413-23. [Link]

Warrier, V., Greenberg, D.M., Weir, E., Buckingham, C., Smith, P., Lai, M-C., Allison, C. & Baron-Cohen, S. (2020). Elevated rates of autism, other neurodevelopmental and psychiatric diagnoses, and autistic traits in transgender and gender-diverse individuals. Nature Communications 11. [Link

Wiepjes, C.M., Nota, N.M., de Blok, C.J.M., Klaver, M., de Vries, A.L.C., Wensing-Kruger, S.A., de Jongh, R.T., Bouman, M.B., Steensma, T.D., Cohen-Kettenis, P., Gooren, L.J.G., Kreukels, B.P.C. & den Heijer, M. (2018). The Amsterdam Cohort of Gender Dysphoria Study (1972-2015): Trends in Prevalence, Treatment, and Regrets. Journal of Sexual Medicine 15 (4). [Link]

Wierckx, K., Mueller, S., Weyers, S., Van Caenegem, E., Roef, G., Heylens, G. & T’Sjoen, G. (2012). Long-Term Evaluation of Cross-Sex Hormone Treatment in Transsexual Persons. The Journal of Sexual Medicine 9 (10): 2641-2651. [Link]

Y

Yarbrough, E. (2018). Transgender mental health. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Publishing. [Link]

Z

Zucker, K. J. (2017). Epidemiology of gender dysphoria and transgender identity. Sexual Health 14 (5): 404-411. [Link]

Zucker, K. J. (2018). The myth of persistence. International Journal of Transgenderism 19 (2): 231-45. [Link]

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