Vaginoplasty can result in fistula, stenosis, necrosis, prolapse and even death.

Vaginoplasty can result in fistula, stenosis, necrosis, prolapse and even death. Expand
Vaginoplasty can result in fistula, stenosis, necrosis, prolapse and even death.

Male-to-female genital surgery (vaginoplasty) is associated with significant long-term complications: there is a 2% risk of fistula, 14% risk of stenosis (abnormal narrowing), 1% risk of necrosis (tissue death) and 4% risk of prolapse [1].

One systematic review [2] found an overall complication rate of 32.5%.

A Dutch study [3] of 55 (out of an original 70) adolescents treated with puberty blockers, cross sex hormones, and genital surgery, showed that among 22 male-to-female patients who underwent vaginoplasty, one adolescent died as a result of necrotizing fasciitis after the surgery.

REFERENCES

[1] Manrique, O., Adabi, K., Martinez-Jorge, J., Ciudad, P., Nicoli, F. and Kiranantawat, K. (2018). Complications and Patient-Reported Outcomes in Male-to-Female Vaginoplasty—Where We Are Today. Annals of Plastic Surgery 80 (6): 684-691. [Link]

[2] Dreher, P.C., Edwards, D., Hager, S., Dennis, M., Belkoff, A., Mora, J., Tarry, S. & Rumer, K.L. (2018). Complications of the neovagina in male-to-female transgender surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis with discussion of management. Clin Anat. 31 (2):191-199. [Link]

[3] de Vries, A., McGuire, T., Steensma, E., Wagenaar, T., Doreleijers, P. & Cohen-Kettenis, P. (2014). Young adult psychological outcome after puberty suppression and gender reassignment. [Link]