The sources we use are selected for their reliability. We mostly use peer-reviewed papers; however, we occasionally refer to government-commissioned studies, authoritative bodies’ submissions to governmental commissions, published books, or doctoral theses. In a few cases, we provide references for the purpose of debunking unreliable data.

Inclusion of a particular reference in this ‘Sources’ section should not, for this reason, be interpreted as recommendation.

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Acosta, F. J., Rodríguez, C. J., Cejas, M. R., Ramallo-Fariña, Y. & Fernandez-Garcimartin, H. (2020) Suicide Coverage in the Digital Press Media: Adherence to World Health Organization Guidelines and Effectiveness of Different Interventions Aimed at Media Professionals. Health Communication 35 (13). [Link]

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Asscheman, H., Giltay, E. J., Megens, J. A. J., de Ronde, W., van Trotsenburg, M. A. A. & Gooren, L. J. G. (2011). A long-term follow-up study of mortality in transsexuals receiving treatment with cross-sex hormones. European Journal of Endocrinology 164 (4). [Link]


Baker, K.E., Wilson, L.M., Sharma, R., Dukhanin, V., McArthur, K. & Robinson, K.A. (2021) Hormone Therapy, Mental Health, and Quality of Life Among Transgender People: A Systematic Review. Journal of the Endocrine Society 5 (4). [Link]

Baldassarre, M., Giannone, F., Foschini, M., Battaglia, C., Busacchi, P., Venturoli, S., & Meriggiola, M. (2013). Effects of long-term high dose testosterone administration on vaginal epithelium structure and estrogen receptor-α and -β expression of young women. International Journal Of Impotence Research, 25 (5): 172-177. [Link]

Barrett, J. (2015). Written evidence submitted by British Association of Gender Identity Specialists to the Transgender Equality Inquiry. [Link]

Becerra-Culqui, T.A. Liu, Y., Nash, R., Cromwell, L., Flanders, W.D., Getahun, D. Giammattei, S.V., Hunkeler, E.M., Lash, T.L., Millman, A., Quinn, V.P., Robinson, B., Roblin, D., Sandberg, D.E., Silverberg, M.J., Tangpricha, V. & Goodman, M. (2018). ‘Mental health of transgender and gender nonconforming youth compared with their peers. Pediatrics 141(5). [Link]

Bechard, M., VanderLaan, D. P., Wood, H., Wasserman, L. & Zucker, K. (2017). Psychosocial and Psychological Vulnerability in Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria: A “Proof of Principle” Study. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 43 (7). [Link]

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Bhargava, A., Arnold, A.P., Bangasser, D.A., Denton, K.M., Gupta, A., Hilliard Krause, L.M., Mayer, E.A., McCarthy, M., Miller, W.L., Raznahan, A. & Verma, R. (2021). Considering Sex as a Biological Variable in Basic and Clinical Studies: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement. Endocrine Reviews 42 (3): 219-258. [Link]

Biggs, M. (2019). The Tavistock’s Experiment with Puberty Blockers. In: Moore, M. & Brunskell-Evans, H. (eds.). Inventing Transgender Children and Young People. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. [Link]

Biggs, M. (2020). Puberty Blockers and Suicidality in Adolescents Suffering from Gender Dysphoria. Archives of Sexual Behavior (49): 2227–2229. [Link]

Biggs, M. (2021). Revisiting the effect of GnRH analogue treatment on bone mineral density in young adolescents with gender dysphoria. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism 34 (7): 937-939. [Link]

Bishoy, H., Repack, D., Tarang, P., Guirguis, E., Kumar, G. & Sachdeva, R. (2019). Psychiatric disorders in the U.S. transgender population. Annals of Epidemiology 39: 1-7. [Link]

Bjorkman, B.M. (2017). Singular they and the syntactic representation of gender in English. Glossa: a journal of general linguistics 2 (1): 1-13. [Link]

Bränström, R. & Pachankis, J. E. (2019). Reduction in Mental Health Treatment Utilization Among Transgender Individuals After Gender-Affirming Surgeries: A Total Population Study. American Journal of Psychiatry 177 (8): 727-734. [Link]

Burgess, L.G., Riddell, P.M., Fancourt, A. & Murayama, K. (2018). The Influence of Social Contagion Within Education: A Motivational Perspective. Mind, Brain, and Education 12: 164-174. [Link]

Butler, G., De Graaf, N., Wren, B. & Carmichael, P. (2018) Assessment and support of children and adolescents with gender dysphoria. Archives of Disease in Childhood103: 631-636. [Link]


Carmichael, P., Butler, G., Masic, U., Cole, T. J., De Stavola, B. L., Davidson, S., Skageberg, E. M., Khadr, S., & Viner, R. M. (2021). Short-term outcomes of pubertal suppression in a selected cohort of 12 to 15 year old young people with persistent gender dysphoria in the UK. PLOS ONE 16 (2). [Link]

Cheng, P.J., Pastuszak, A.W., Myers, J.B., Goodwin, I.A. & Hotaling, J.M. (2019). Fertility concerns of the transgender patient. Transl Androl Urol. 8 (3): 209-218. [Link]

Churcher Clarke, A. & Spiliadis, A. (2019). ‘Taking the lid off the box’: The value of extended clinical assessment for adolescents presenting with gender identity difficulties. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry 24 (2): 338-352. [Link]

Coelho, J., Suen, J., Clark, B., Marshall, S., Geller, J. & Lam, P.-Y. (2019). Eating Disorder Diagnoses and Symptom Presentation in Transgender Youth: a Scoping Review. Current Psychiatry Reports 21. [Link]

Cohen-Kettenis, P., Schagen, S., Steensma, T., de Vries, A., & Delemarre-van de Waal, H. (2011). Puberty Suppression in a Gender-Dysphoric Adolescent: A 22-Year Follow-Up. Archives Of Sexual Behavior 40 (4): 843-847. [Link]

Cumming, R., Sylvester, K. & Fuld, J.P. (2016). Understanding the effects on lung function of chest binder use in the transgender population. Thorax 71. [Link]


D’Angelo, R. (2018). Psychiatry’s ethical involvement in gender-affirming care. Australasian Psychiatry 26 (5): 460-463. [Link]

D’Angelo, R., Syrulnik, E., Ayad, S., Marchiano, L., Kenny, D.T. & Clarke, P. (2021). One Size Does Not Fit All: In Support of Psychotherapy for Gender Dysphoria. Arch Sex Behav 50: 7-16. [Link]

Daum, Meghan (2021). “We Feel Like We’re In The Wild West:” Parents of Gender-Questioning Kids Ask Their Own Questions. The Unspeakable Podcast, October 4, 2021. [Link]

Debarbo, C.J.M. (2020). Rare cause of testicular torsion in a transwoman: A case report. Urology Case Reports 33. [Link]

de Blok, C.J.M., Wiepjes, C.M., van Velzen, D.M., Staphorsius, A.S., Nota, N.M., Gooren, L.J.G., Kreukels, B.P.C. & den Heijer, M. (2021). Mortality trends over five decades in adult transgender people receiving hormone treatment: a report from the Amsterdam cohort of gender dysphoria. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology 9. [Link]

de Freitas, L. D., Léda-Rêgo, G., Bezerra-Filho, S., & Miranda-Scippa, Â. (2020). Psychiatric disorders in individuals diagnosed with gender dysphoria: A systematic review. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 74 (2), 99–104. [Link]

Delahunt, J.W., Denison, H.J., Sim, D.A., Bullock, J.J. & Krebs, J.D. (2018). Increasing rates of people identifying as transgender presenting to Endocrine Services in the Wellington region. N Z Med J 131: 33-42. [Link]

Delgado-Ruiz, R., Swanson, P., & Romanos, G. (2019). Systematic Review of the Long-Term Effects of Transgender Hormone Therapy on Bone Markers and Bone Mineral Density and Their Potential Effects in Implant Therapy. Journal of clinical medicine 8 (6): 784. [Link]

de Vries, A. L. C., & Cohen-Kettenis, P. T. (2012). Clinical management of gender dysphoria in children and adolescents: The Dutch approach. Journal of Homosexuality 59 (3): 301–320. [Link]

de Vries, A. L. C., McGuire, T., Steensma, E., Wagenaar, T., Doreleijers, P. & Cohen-Kettenis, P. (2014). Young adult psychological outcome after puberty suppression and gender reassignment. [Link]

de Vries, A.L.C., Steensma, T.D., Doreleijers, T.A. & Cohen-Kettenis, P.T. (2011). Puberty suppression in adolescents with gender identity disorder: a prospective follow-up study. J Sex Med 8 (8): 2276-83. [Link]

de Vries, K. M. (2009). Berdache (Two-Spirit). In O’Brien, J. (ed.): Encyclopedia of gender and society. Los Angeles: SAGE. [Link]

Dhejne, C., Lichtenstein, P., Boman, M., Johansson, A. L. V., Långström, N., & Landén, M. (2011). Long-term follow-up of transsexual persons undergoing sex reassignment surgery: Cohort study in Sweden. PLoS ONE, 6(2). [Link]

Dishion, T. J., & Tipsord, J. M. (2011). Peer contagion in child and adolescent social and emotional development. Annual review of psychology 62: 189–214. [Link]

Dreher, P.C., Edwards, D., Hager, S., Dennis, M., Belkoff, A., Mora, J., Tarry, S. & Rumer, K.L. (2018). Complications of the neovagina in male-to-female transgender surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis with discussion of management. Clin Anat. 31 (2):191-199. [Link]


Elaut, E. (2014). Biopsychosocial factors in the sexual desire of contraception‐using couples and trans persons. Doctoral thesis, University of Ghent. [Link]

Elhakeem, A., Frysz, M., Tilling, K., Tobias, J.H. & Lawlor, D.A. (2019). Association Between Age at Puberty and Bone Accrual From 10 to 25 Years of Age. JAMA Netw Open; 2(8). [Link]

Expósito-Campos, P. (2021). A Typology of Gender Detransition and Its Implications for Healthcare Providers. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 47 (3): 270-280. [Link]


Fang, R.H., Lin, J.T. & Ma S. (1994). Phalloplasty for female transsexuals with sensate free forearm flap. Microsurgery 15: 349–52. [Link]

Fausto-Sterling, A. (2000). Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality. New York: Basic Books. [Link]

Flores, A.R., Herman, J. L.; Gates, G. J. & Brown, T.N.T. (2016). How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender? Los Angeles, CA: The Williams Institute. [Link]


Gender Identity Development Service (2021). Referrals to GIDS, financial years 2010-11 to 2020-21. [Link]

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Grant, J. M., Mottet, L. A., Tanis, J., Harrison, J., Herman, J. L., & Keisling, M. (2011). Injustice at every turn: A report of the national transgender discrimination survey. National Gay and Lesbian Task Force; National Center for Transgender Equality. [Link]

Grubber, B. (2017). Singular They: The Best Epicene Pronoun. Student Research Conference Select Presentations: Paper 45. [Link]


Hall, R., Mitchell, L., & Sachdeva, J. (2021). Access to care and frequency of detransition among a cohort discharged by a UK national adult gender identity clinic: Retrospective case-note review. BJPsych Open 7(6): E184. [Link]

Haupt, C., Henke, M., Kutschmar, A., Hauser, B., Baldinger, S., Saenz, S.R. & Schreiber, G. (2020). Antiandrogen or estradiol treatment or both during hormone therapy in transitioning transgender women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 11. [Link]

Hermansson-Webb, E. B. (2014). ‘With Friends Like These…’: The Social Contagion of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Amongst Adolescent Females. Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy: University of Otago. [Link]


Kaltiala-Heino, R., Bergman, H., Työläjärvi, M., & Frisén, L. (2018). Gender dysphoria in adolescence: current perspectives. Adolescent health, medicine and therapeutics 9, 31–41. [Link]

Kaltiala-Heino, R., Sumia, M., Työläjärvi, M. & Lindberg, N. (2015). Two years of gender identity service for minors: overrepresentation of natal girls with severe problems in adolescent development. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 9 (1). [Link]

Konnelly, L. & Cowper, E. (2020). Gender diversity and morphosyntax: An account of singular they. Glossa: a journal of general linguistics 5 (1): 1–19. [Link]

Kozlowska, K., McClure, G., Chudleigh, C., Maguire, A.M., Gessler, D., Scher, S. & Ambler, G.R. (2021). ‘Australian children and adolescents with gender dysphoria: Clinical presentations and challenges experienced by a multidisciplinary team and gender service’. Human Systems, 1(1), 70–95. [Link]

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Lee, J. Y., Finlayson, C., Olson-Kennedy, J., Garofalo, R., Chan, Y. M., Glidden, D. V., & Rosenthal, S. M. (2020). Low Bone Mineral Density in Early Pubertal Transgender/Gender Diverse Youth: Findings From the Trans Youth Care Study. Journal of the Endocrine Society 4 (9). [Link]

Leef, J.H., Brian, J., VanderLaan, D.P., Wood, H., Scott, K., Lai, M-C., Bradley, S.J., & Zucker, K.J. (2019). Traits of autism spectrum disorder in school-aged children with gender dysphoria: A comparison to clinical controls. Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology 7 (4): 383–395. [Link]

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Littman, L. (2021). Individuals Treated for Gender Dysphoria with Medical and/or Surgical Transition Who Subsequently Detransitioned: A Survey of 100 Detransitioners. Arch Sex Behav. [Link]


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Marchiano, L. (2017). Outbreak: On Transgender Teens and Psychic Epidemics. Psychological Perspectives 60 (3): 345-366. [Link]

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