Social transition

In one survey, 50% of transwomen who tucked were concerned about negative health effects.

In one survey, 50% of transwomen who tucked were concerned about negative health effects. Expand
In one survey, 50% of transwomen who tucked were concerned about negative health effects.

A survey [1] of transwomen who tucked (the process of reducing the visible male crotch bulge) reported that half were concerned about the health effects of tucking. 

Their reported symptoms included itching (28%), rash (21%), testicular pain (17%), penile pain (14%), and skin infections (12%).

In addition, patients may be reluctant to seek medical care for testicular complaints and when they do, it may be already late to salvage the testis. [2]

REFERENCES

[1] Poteat, T., Malik, M., & Cooney, E. (2018). Understanding the health effects of binding and tucking for gender affirmation. Journal of Clinical and Translational Science 2 (Suppl 1), 76. [Link]

[2] Debarbo, C.J.M. (2020). Rare cause of testicular torsion in a transwoman: A case report. Urology Case Reports 33. [Link]

One case study suggests that tucking can cause testicular torsion.

One case study suggests that tucking can cause testicular torsion. Expand
One case study suggests that tucking can cause testicular torsion.

A case study [1] found that one transwoman had testicular torsion as a result of tucking.

Testicular torsion – the rotation of the testes and subsequent arterial constriction – can present as severe acute unilateral scrotal pain, nausea, and vomiting. If permanent ischemic damage results, delay in treatment may be associated with decreased fertility, or may necessitate orchiectomy [2].

REFERENCES

[1] Debarbo, C.J.M. (2020). Rare cause of testicular torsion in a transwoman: A case report. Urology Case Reports 33. [Link]

[2] Sharp, V. J., Kieran, K. & Arlen, A. M. (2013). Testicular Torsion: Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Management. Am Fam Physician 88 (12): 835-840. [Link]

While long-term study is lacking, one case study suggests that tucking can affect fertility.

While long-term study is lacking, one case study suggests that tucking can affect fertility. Expand
While long-term study is lacking, one case study suggests that tucking can affect fertility.

In a case study [1] of one transwoman, tucking resulted in oligospermia – an abnormally low sperm count – affecting fertility. Elevation of the testes because of tucking may contribute to heat stress and consequent impairment of spermatogenesis.

After cessation of tucking and the provision of a new sperm sample, the sperm count in the patient was improved, and the semen had increased opacification.

A further study [2] found that tucking could create a suboptimal environment for spermatogenesis.

REFERENCES

[1] Trussler, J. T., & Carrasquillo, R. J. (2020). Cryptozoospermia Associated With Genital Tucking Behavior in a Transwoman. Reviews in urology, 22 (4), 170–173. [Link]

[2] Debarbo, C.J.M. (2020). Rare cause of testicular torsion in a transwoman: A case report. Urology Case Reports 33. [Link]

A study which looked at 27 different negative health effects of binding found that some do not show for years.

A study which looked at 27 different negative health effects of binding found that some do not show for years. Expand
A study which looked at 27 different negative health effects of binding found that some do not show for years.

A survey [1] of 1800 females who used breast binders reported a number of negative health effects which develop over time. Some of these effects are felt immediately. However, in other cases, it can take years for the negative health effects to be fully seen:

REFERENCES

[1] Peitzmeier, S.M., Silberholz, J., Gardner, I.H., Weinand, J. & Acevedo, K. (2021). Time to First Onset of Chest Binding-Related Symptoms in Transgender Youth. Pediatrics 147 (3). [Link]

There is evidence that chest binding has a statistically significant impact on lung function.

There is evidence that chest binding has a statistically significant impact on lung function. Expand
There is evidence that chest binding has a statistically significant impact on lung function.

A study [1] found that:

Transgender individuals using chest binders have abnormal lung function. The acute effect of wearing the binder appears to be an overall volume reduction with little other change.

REFERENCES

[1] Cumming, R., Sylvester, K. & Fuld, J.P. (2016). Understanding the effects on lung function of chest binder use in the transgender population. Thorax 71. [Link]

There is an array of negative health effects associate with chest binding.

There is an array of negative health effects associate with chest binding. Expand
There is an array of negative health effects associate with chest binding.

There is a range of negative effects which chest binding can cause [1].

A survey [2] of transmen who engaged in breast binding found that 68% were concerned about the health effects. The most common symptoms associated with binding were back pain (65%), shortness of breath (48.6%), bad posture (32%), chest pain (30%), and light-headedness (30%).

REFERENCES

[1] Peitzmeier, S., Gardner, I., Weinand, J., Corbet A. & Acevedo, K. (2017). Health impact of chest binding among transgender adults: a community-engaged, cross-sectional study. Culture, Health & Sexuality 19 (1): 64-75. [Link]

[2] Poteat, T., Malik, M., & Cooney, E. (2018). Understanding the health effects of binding and tucking for gender affirmation. Journal of Clinical and Translational Science 2 (Suppl 1), 76. [Link]

One study showed that, without social transition, nearly two-thirds of pre-teen gender-dysphoric males grow up to be gay or bisexual.

One study showed that, without social transition, nearly two-thirds of pre-teen gender-dysphoric males grow up to be gay or bisexual. Expand
One study showed that, without social transition, nearly two-thirds of pre-teen gender-dysphoric males grow up to be gay or bisexual.

A University of Toronto study [1] found that 63.6% of boys with early onset gender dysphoria, who received ‘watchful waiting’ treatment and no pre-pubertal social transition, grew up to be gay or bisexual. 

Only 12% of the study participants continued to identify as transfeminine. 

REFERENCES

[1] Singh, D., Bradley, S.J. & Zucker, K.J. (2021). A Follow-Up Study of Boys With Gender Identity Disorder. Frontiers in Psychology 12. [Link]

More and more children have already socially transitioned – often including pronoun changes – by the time they present to gender clinics.

More and more children have already socially transitioned – often including pronoun changes – by the time they present to gender clinics. Expand
More and more children have already socially transitioned – often including pronoun changes – by the time they present to gender clinics.

Dutch data [1] indicate that, between 2000 and 2004, 3.3% of children had completely socially transitioned (clothing, hairstyle, change of name, and use of pronouns) when they were referred to gender clinics, with 19% already living in the preferred gender role in clothing style and hairstyle, but not announcing that they wanted a name and pronoun change. 

However, between 2005 and 2009, these percentages increased to 8.9% and 33.3% respectively, demonstrating that social transition is becoming more common before medical transition is investigated.

REFERENCES

[1] Steensma, T.D. & Cohen-Kettenis, P.T. (2011). Gender Transitioning before Puberty? Archives of Sexual Behavior 40 (4): 649-50. [Link]

Social transition – changing names, pronouns, clothing and bathroom use – correlates with the persistence of transgender identity.

Social transition – changing names, pronouns, clothing and bathroom use – correlates with the persistence of transgender identity. Expand
Social transition – changing names, pronouns, clothing and bathroom use – correlates with the persistence of transgender identity.

Pediatric transition doctors in the Netherlands who first pioneered the use of puberty blockers in dysphoric children observe that social transition correlates with an increase in young people’s persistence when it comes to gender identity [1]. This led them to caution against social transition before puberty.

Another paper [2] notes that gender dysphoria is more persistent into adolescence where social transition has occurred, and as such asserts that social transition is a “psychosocial intervention [which] might be characterized as iatrogenic” – a medical problem caused by the treatment itself.

There is evidence [3] that social transition by the child was found to be strongly correlated with persistence for natal boys, more so than for girls.

REFERENCES

[1] de Vries, A. L., & Cohen-Kettenis, P. T. (2012). Clinical management of gender dysphoria in children and adolescents: The Dutch approach. Journal of Homosexuality 59 (3): 301–320. [Link]

[2] Zucker, K. J. (2019). Debate: Different strokes for different folks. Child and Adolescent Mental Health 25(1): 36-37. [Link]

[3] Steensma, T.D., McGuire, J.K., Kreukels, B.P., Beekman, A.J. & Cohen-Kettenis, P.T. (2013). Factors associated with desistence and persistence of childhood gender dysphoria: a quantitative follow-up study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 52 (6): 582-90. [Link]